A pair of right and left deflating subspaces and of have the same dimension and satisfy and for all , and furthermore . We also write this as . The simplest example is when is spanned by a single right eigenvector of and is spanned by its image under and/or . More generally a right deflating subspace may be spanned by a subset of right eigenvectors of , and the left deflating subspace by their images. But since some pencils do not have independent eigenvectors, there are right deflating subspaces that are not spanned by eigenvectors. For example, see the example in §2.5.2.