0 /|\ / | \ 1 2 3
You get the maximum Ci by removing node 0
2 / \ 1 3 / \ 0 4
You get the maximum Ci by removing nodes 1, 2 or 3.
You don't need to worry about the structure of the tree -- whether one node is the parent of another. Let's take example 0 as an example. All of the following trees correspond to the specified edges:
0 1 2 3 /|\ | | | 1 2 3 0 0 0 / \ / \ / \ 2 3 1 3 1 2
And the answer is the same regardless of how you view the parent/child relationship in the tree. So the answer here is to maintain a vector E, one per node in the tree. E[i] should contain the number of edges coming out of node i. The maximum value of E[i] is the answer.
You can create E very simply by running through T. Each value of T[i] corresponds to the edge (T[i],i+1), so for each value of T you increment two values of E. Then calculate the maximum.