- Natural-Language Legal Expert System Builder
- The Calculus of Functional Differences
- Lp Circular Functions
- Evolutionary Neurotheology, Jungian
Psychology, & Neoplatonism
- Biographies of Greek Philosophers
Natural-Language Legal Expert System Builder (NLESB)
NLESB enables a lawyer to build a useful legal expert system in
ordinary English without being a computer expert. It accepts rules
in ordinary English, though in normalized
form, and parses them into propositional data structures that
it can use to draw inferences. NLESB has some features, particularly
in its logic, that are peculiar to the needs of legal expert
Send me mail
for reprints or if you are interested in using our prototype
Publications (reverse chronological order):
- “A Logic for Statutory Law,” by John Nolt, Grayfred B. Gray,
Bruce J. MacLennan, and Donald J. Ploch, Jurimetics 35,
2 (Winter 1995), pp. 121–151. Winner of Loevinger Prize.
- “Legal Expert System Building: A Semi-Intelligent Computer
Program Makes It Easier,” by Grayfred B. Gray, Bruce J.
MacLennan, John E. Nolt & Donald R. Ploch, John Marshall
Journal of Computer and Information Law, 12
(1994), pp. 555–583. [pdf (44MB)]
- “Readability of the Law: Forms of Law for Building Legal
Expert Systems,” by Donald R. Ploch, Bethany K. Dumas, Grayfred
B. Grey, Bruce J. MacLennan, and John E. Nolt, Jurimetrics
33, 2 (Winter 1993), pp. 189–221.
- “Law Reading Experiment,” by Donald R. Ploch, Bethany K.
Dumas, Grayfred H. Gray, Bruce MacLennan, & John Nolt, Pre-Proceedings
of the III International Conference, Logica Informatica
Diritto: Legal Expert Systems, A. A. Martino (ed.),
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la
documentazione giuridica, Florence, Italy, November 2-5, 1989,
Vol. 2, pp. 681–704.
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- “A Calculus of Functional
Differences” [compressed postscript]
Abstract: Functions can often be defined by
recursive equations such as these:
f(x) = b(x),
The second equation says that if the input to f “varies”
by h, then its output “varies” by gx.
We call this a functional difference equation; it is analogous
to a numerical difference equation, such as:
f[h(x)] = gx[f(x)],
f(h + x) = gx
which says that the output of f varies by gx
when its input is varied by h. Since in our theory we
vary the input by an arbitrary function, rather than a numerical
displacement, we can take differences of functions defined on
nonnumeric domains, such as lists, trees and sets.
The ultimate goal of this research is to improve our ability
to reason about functional programs. Specifically, the theory
of functional differences provides a means of going from local
descriptions of behavior (difference equations) to global
descriptions (the solution to the difference equation), and
In this paper we define several different kinds of functional
differences and present fundamental results concerning them
(existence, uniqueness, etc.). We also present a complementary
operation of “functional integration” that can be used to
solve functional difference equations.
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- “Lp Circular Functions” (Jan ‘93
version [pdf], which
corrects Table 1 in May ‘92 version [compressed postscript]):
Abstract: In this report we develop the basic
properties of a set of functions analogous to the circular and
hyperbolic functions, but based on Lp
circles, thus a kind of generalized trigonometry. The
resulting identities may simplify analysis in Lp
spaces in much the way that the circular functions do in
Euclidean space. In any case, they are a pleasing example of
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- Evolutionary Neurotheology, Jungian Psychology, &
- “Evolutionary Neurotheology and the Varienties
of Religious Experience” [html,
— an extended version of a chapter in NeuroTheology:
Brain, Science, Spirituality, Religious Experience, R.
Joseph (Ed.), University Press, California, 2002.
- Evolution, Jung, and Theurgy: Their Role in
- “Evolutionary Jungian Psychology” [pdf (1 MB)], Psychological
Perspectives 49, 1 (Spring 2006), pp. 9–28.
- “Neoplatonism in Science: Past and Future” [pdf (196 KB)], extended
version of paper [pdf
(212 KB)] presented at International Society for
Neoplatonic Studies meeting, New Orleans, June 22–26, 2005,
and to appear in Metaphysical
Patterns in Platonism: Ancient, Medieval,
Renaissance, and Modern, edited by J. Finamore
& B. Berchman, University Press of the South, 2007, pp.
441–59; reprinted by Prometheus Trust, 2014, pp.
199–214. Both versions revised July 17, 2006.
- “Individual Soul and World Soul: The Process of
Individuation in Neoplatonism & Jung” [pdf (1.8 MB)], invited
chapter for Thomas Arzt & Axel Holm (Eds.), Wegmarken
Individuation (Milestones of Individuation). Würzburg:
Königshausen & Neumann, 2006, pp. 83–116.
- Slides from presentations at ORICL
(Oak Ridge Institute for Continued Learning), Feb. 25 and
Mar. 4, 2009, from course on “Mysteries, Mysticism, and the Limits of
- “The Ancient Greek
- “Platonic Spiritual
- “Living Neoplatonism”
paper read June 23, 2011 at the ninth annual conference of
the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Atlanta,
- “Theurgy from the Perspective of Evolutionary
Neuropsychology” [pdf], paper read
June 21, 2012 at the tenth annual conference of the
International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Cagliari,
- “Psychological Effects of Theurgy in Contemporary
paper read June 15, 2013 at the eleventh annual conference
of the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies,
- “Twenty-first Century Theurgy” [pdf],
paper read June 17, 2014 at the twelfth annual conference of
the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Lisbon,
- “The Ancient Wisdom of Hypatia” [pptx (21 MB)],
presentation at ORICL
(Oak Ridge Institute for Continued Learning), July 11, 2014.
- “The Tablet of Cebes” [pdf (30 MB)],
presentation at PantheaCon 2015.
- “Neurophenomenology and Neoplatonism” [pdf],
presentation at the 14th Annual Conference of the
International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Seattle WA,
June 15–18, 2016. An extended version will appear in an
- “Neoplatonic Theurgy” [slides: pdf (130 MB)],
presentation at PantheaCon 2017.
- “The Psychological Effects of Henôsis” [pdf],
extended version of paper presented at the 15th Annual
Conference of the International Society for Neoplatonic
Studies, Olomouc, Czech Republic, June 13–16, 2017.
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- Biographies of ancient Greek
of Madauros (ch. 46, pp. 207–9) and Iamblichus of Chalcis
(ch. 50, pp. 223–6), extended versions of two biographies for Meet
the Philosophers of Ancient Greece, ed. Patricia
O’Grady, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
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MacLennan’s home page
to Bruce MacLennan / MacLennan@utk.edu
This page is web.eecs.utk.edu/~mclennan/other-res.html
Last updated: 2017-12-23.